Perchlorate is a highly oxidized chlorine oxy-anion manufactured for use as the oxidizer in solid propellants for rockets, missiles, explosives and pyrotechnics. Approximately 90 % of all perchlorate salts are manufactured as ammonium perchlorate for use in rocket and missile propellants. The periodic replacement and use of solid propellant has resulted in the discharge of more than 15.9 million kg of perchlorate salts into the environment since the 1950s. Perchlorate salts are highly soluble in water. Since sodium perchlorate has a solubility of about 2 kg/l, a large amount is readily transported to surface and ground waters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified perchlorate users and manufacturers in 44 states, and perchlorate releases in at least 20 states. Such perchlorate releases are estimated to have affected the drinking water supply to 15 million people.
Ghosh, A. , Pakshirajan, K. (2014)., Bioremediation of perchlorate contaminated environment, in S. N. Singh (ed.), Biological remediation of explosive residues, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 163-178.
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