It is widely believed that philosophy is contemplative and that to take things philosophically is to resign oneself. Actually there have always been proactive philosophies and ideologies, like pragmatism and Marxism, alongside contemplative ones, like original Buddhism and Stoicism. In addition, whereas some moralities – like Confucius"s, Christ"s, and Kant"s – have been socially conformists, others have been dissident or even rebellious, though fragmentary rather than systematic. Finally, there have also been double moralities, like the Nietzschean or fascist one, that praised the leader"s "heroic" (violent) ways while exhorting "Believe, obey, fight!" to the masses.
Bunge, M. (2016). Practical philosophy, in Between two worlds, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 379-404.
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